Preliminary Ecological Appraisals (PEA)

Our team of experienced ecologists carry out Preliminary Ecological Appraisals (PEA) for development sites in support of planning applications or to inform scheme design options. These surveys include: Phase 1 Habitat surveys, invasive weed surveys and protected species surveys.

Constraints and Opportunities

If your project is at the concept stage or you are considering a number of options, a constraints and opportunity report can be a useful tool in gaining an initial insight into what is present within the site in the form of a high-level, concise report.  This work usually comprises either a desk-based exercise or a simple walkover considering the habitats and geographical location as a basis for determining potential constraints and highlight where there are opportunities for enhancements and mitigations.


Phase 1 Habitat Surveys

All Phase 1 Habitat surveys are undertaken following the current survey guidelines (JNCC, 2010).  The aim of the Phase 1 Habitat survey is to map the dominant habitat types and identify the need for further specialist botanical surveys, such as a National Vegetation Classification (NVC) survey.

Phase 1 Habitat Survey

Protected Species Walkover Surveys

The Extended Phase 1 Habitat Survey also includes a Protected Species Walkover survey. The aim of this survey is to identify habitats which may support protected species and to identify any signs of protected species such as feeding signs, droppings, hairs, footprints, resting sites/setts.


Building and Tree Inspections

When considering the redevelopment or demolition of existing buildings, there is often a requirement to assess the potential for the presence of protected species.  IKM’s experienced ecologists specialise in building assessments for protected species, such as bats and birds (including barn owl).  Our licenced ecologists can assist and advise on your proposed development and help you through the process.


Invasive Species Surveys

As part of any walkover survey, the presence of Invasive Non-Native Species (INNS) is identified and marked where possible. INNS Surveys should be undertaken during the growing season to ensure the stands are captured as die back during the winter can prevent identification or underestimate the size of any stand.

Invasive Species Surveys

Ecological Constraints Reports

The outcome of the PEA, which is based on the results of the site visits and desk studies, is a report and map detailing known ecological constraints, as well as recommendations for mitigation and/or further, specialist ecological surveys.  The report can also include additional information to fit the scope of requirements for a particular site or client.  This may include measures for enhancement, pre-works calculations for Biodiversity Net Gain projects and other specific details as necessary.

Ecological Constraints